Pure chitin and pure chitosan are white or grayish-white translucent flake-like or powdery solids, tasteless, odorless, non-toxic, and pure chitosan with a pearly luster. The relative molecular mass of chitin in the organism is 1×106~2×106. The relative molecular mass of chitin after extraction is about 3×105~7×105. The relative molecular mass of chitosan prepared from chitin is even more. Low, about 2 × 105 ~ 5 × 105. The relative molecular mass of chitin and chitosan during the manufacturing process is generally expressed by the value of the viscosity. Commercial chitosan has three different viscosities depending on its use, namely, high viscosity products of 0.7 to 1 Pa·s, medium viscosity products of 0.25 to 0.65 Pa·s, and low viscosity products of <0.25 Pa·s. High viscosity chitin or chitosan must be used to make fiber products.
1.Under certain conditions, chitosan can undergo various chemical reactions such as hydrolysis, alkylation, acylation, carboxymethylation, sulfonation, nitration, halogenation, oxidation, reduction, condensation and complexation. The performance of chitosan derivatives, thereby expanding the range of applications of chitosan. 2.Chitosan macromolecules have active hydroxyl groups and amino groups, and they have strong chemical reaction ability. The hydroxyl group on C-6 under basic conditions can be reacted as follows: hydroxyethylation - chitosan is reacted with ethylene oxide to give a hydroxyethylated derivative. Carboxymethylation - Chitosan is reacted with chloroacetic acid to give a carboxymethylated derivative. Sulfonation - Chitin and chitosan, like cellulose, are treated with a base to react with carbon disulfide to form a sulfonate. Cyanoethylation - An acrylonitrile and chitosan can undergo an addition reaction to form a cyanoethylated derivative. 3.The above reaction introduces a large side group in chitin and chitosan, destroying its crystal structure, and thus its solubility is improved, soluble in water, and the carboxymethylated.
Agricultural application:Chitosan is a natural plant nutrient-promoting agent--foliar fertilizer raw material. The foliar fertilizer made of chitosan can not only kill plants, fight disease, play a role in fertilizer, but also Decomposes the animal and plant residues and trace metal elements in the soil, which is transformed into nutrients of plants, enhances plant immunity and promotes plant health; shrimp shells and crab shells are rich in protein and trace elements. Good nutritional value.
In agriculture, chitosan is often used as a natural seed treatment and plant growth enhancer, and as an ecologically friendly biological pesticide to enhance the plant's inherent ability to resist fungal infections. Chitin/chitosan, a natural biocontrol active ingredient, is found in the shells of crustaceans such as lobsters, crabs and shrimp, as well as many other organisms, including insects and fungi. It is one of the most abundant biodegradable materials in the world.
Degradation molecules of chitin/chitosan exist in soil and water. The application of chitosan to plants and crops is regulated by the EPA, and the usda's national organic program regulates its use on organic certified farms and crops. Epa-approved biodegradable chitosan products allow for use outdoors and indoors on plants and crops grown by businesses and consumers.
The natural biological control capacity of chitosan should not be confused with the effects of fertilizers or pesticides on plants or the environment. Bioactive chitosan insecticides represent new cost-effective biological controls for agricultural and horticultural crops. The biocontrol mode of chitosan induces a natural innate defense response in plants, which, when applied to leaves or soil, is resistant to insects, pathogens, and soil borne diseases. Chitosan increases photosynthesis, promotes and promotes plant growth, stimulates nutrient absorption, increases germination and germination, and enhances plant vitality. When used as seed treatment or seed coating for cotton, corn, seed potatoes, soybeans, sugar beet, tomatoes, wheat and many other seeds, it triggers an innate immune response in the developing root system that can destroy parasitic nematodes without harming beneficial nematodes and organisms.
Agricultural application of chitosan can reduce environmental stress caused by drought and soil deficiency, enhance seed vigor, improve forest quality, increase yield, and reduce fruit decay in vegetable, fruit and citrus crops. The application of chitosan in gardening adds flowers, prolongs the life of cut flowers and Christmas trees. The U.S. forest service has studied chitosan to control pathogens in pine trees and increase the amount of resinous bitumen that makes it resistant to invasion by pine beetles.
Apply 1Kg/Hectare as general dose. Repeat according to crops and to the degree of deficiency.